And ligament It is a band of very resistant and elastic connective tissue whose function is the union of the bones within a joint. Specifically, the stability of the knee is fixed by four ligaments: anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), medial lateral ligament (LLL), and medial lateral ligament (LLL).
From the anatomical point of view, the cruciate ligaments follow the following route:
Depending on the degree of injury to the anterior cruciate ligament, they can be classified into three types:
Most of the ACL injuries They occur in those sports practices that require turns of the lower body and braking:
On the other hand, it is also important to highlight a series of risk factor's that can increase the probability of suffering this injury:
There are several pathologies with symptoms similar to those mentioned above when you injure the LCA (intense pain, inflammation, edema, instability, discomfort when walking, etc.). To differentiate them, they must be done a series of tests:
The injured person should be placed in a supine position (face up) with the hip flexed to 45° and the knee flexed to 90°. With the foot fixed in neutral rotation, a health personnel (physician, physiotherapist, etc.) performs anterior traction on the tibia. If a soft top appears, there was an ACL injury.
This test specifically will not clearly show the ACL lesion, but it will show if it is associated with a bone lesion.
This is one of the best tests to determine the degree of ACL injury since it creates better images of the soft tissues.
Treatment of the knee in case of ACL injury will vary depending on whether conservative, that is, the affected person will not go through the operating room for recovery, or if it is surgical. In general, the majority of grade II and III tears usually opt for this form of treatment and more so if we are talking about athletes.
In case of conservative treatment it is recommended strengthen the hamstrings (which can be worked on in an open kinetic chain) and strengthening of the quadriceps, taking into account that the load must be proximal so as not to favor the anterior drawer. All these types of exercises must be prescribed by health personnel (physiotherapist or doctor).
Regarding a surgical treatment, it must be taken into account that the treatment used is the ligamentoplastia, thus reconstructing the ligament, being able to use various materials:
Once the surgery has been performed and medical discharge has been received, the injured person must follow a strict rehabilitation at the hands of a physiotherapist where he will carry out different techniques for the optimal recovery of the knee.
Among these techniques, the presotherapy. During the first days it would be advisable to use mode 2 of our machine SIZEN, which is indicated to drain excess fluid accumulated in the knee after the operation.
Once the patient gradually returns to sports activity, he may feel muscle overload due to lack of sports habit, for which mode 3 or 4 is more recommended, with which the athlete will obtain rapid muscle recovery.
Finally, we are going to give you a series of tips so that you can prevent, as far as possible, anterior cruciate ligament injury, thus avoiding long months of sports break:
Alice Vicario, physiotherapist and creator of Fisiovik (IG: @fisiovik).
I have studied Sports Sciences and Physical Activity and I specialized in the branch of Health. I worked in a physiotherapy clinic for years as a sports rehabilitator until I finally decided to do physiotherapy.